Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Economics
Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Economics

Brief Description

Agricultural economics as a major of field of study involves the application of economic theories, principles and tools in analyzing problems and issues in agricultural and rural development.

Prospective Students

College graduates and professionals who want to have a career as educators, researchers, administrators, policymaker/analysts, financial analysts, bank managers, extension and development specialists, business entrepreneurs or project consultants in the field of agricultural economics and related fields.

Opportunities

  • The program prepares the student for a wide array of possible career choices.
  • Many graduates of this field are actually currently employed in key international agencies (e.g., World Bank, ADB) and even more as project consultants for international and local consulting firms engaged in development projects.
  • Many of them have gone on to become distinguished professors, lecturers and mentors in major SCUs in the Philippines and abroad.
  • Many graduates are employed in strategic agencies that are mandated with policy making, and analysis and implementation of projects for national development (e.g., NEDA, DA, DENR, PCARRD-DOST, PCMARRD-DOST).
  • Many more graduates work in banks, financial companies, and private agribusiness companies (local and abroad) as market analysts.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

An applicant to the regular Ph. D. program must hold a Master’s degree or its equivalent with a grade point average of 1.5 or better. Successful applicants to the Ph. D. program who have completed their Master’s degree in Agricultural Economics at UPLB are usually admitted on a regular basis. For non-UPLB graduates holding a Master’s degree in Agricultural Economics, successful applicants may be granted regular admission or may be required to pass the Summer Program in Economics (held in April and May) depending on the recommendation of the Graduate Instruction Committee.

QUALIFYING EXAMINATION​

The student must take the qualifying examination to be prepared and administered by the Advisory Committee during the first semester of residence. The examination results will be the basis for evaluating the student’s ability to pursue doctoral study and for determining a suitable program of course work.

Application for the qualifying examination, duly signed by the Chair of the Advisory Committee and the Chair of the major department, must be submitted to the Dean of the Graduate School not later than one month before the date of the examination.

In order to pass the examination, the student must not receive more than one negative vote from the examination committee. A student who fails the qualifying examination cannot be given a re-examination without the unanimous approval of the advisory committee. A student who fails the re-examination shall be permanently disqualified from earning the degree.

The results of the examination must be reported by the chair of the Advisory Committee to the Dean of the Graduate School within one week of the examination.

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS​

For the Ph.D. program, a minimum of 24 units of 200- and 300-level courses plus 2 units of graduate seminar beyond the master’s degree are required. The program allows one or two cognate fields. If the student has two cognate fields, at least 12 units of course work shall be in the major field and 6 units in each of the cognate fields. If there is only one cognate field, the student is required to take at least 9 units of course work in that field and at least 15 units in the major field. Furthermore, the student is required to take 6 units of advanced economic theory and 6 units of advanced quantitative methods. Units in advanced economic theory may be considered as part of the requirements in the major field.

A weighted average grade of 2.0 or better for the course work prescribed by the advisory committee under the major and cognate fields is required in order for the student to qualify for the comprehensive examination. Passing the comprehensive examination qualifies the student to be a candidate for the Ph. D. degree and to start formally the doctoral dissertation work which shall be given an equivalent of 12 units of graduate credit. The Ph. D. degree shall be conferred after the student successfully finishes the final oral defense of the dissertation and satisfies all Graduate School requirements for graduation.

Three years of full time study are normally required to complete the doctoral program. As a rule, not more than seven years are allowed for the completion of all requirements for the Ph. D. degree. However, the Graduate School has very specific requirements and guidelines for readmission in cases where readmission may be required.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

A student pursuing a Master of Science in Agricultural Economics who has completed 26 units of 200-level graduate courses including two units of graduate seminar in two consecutive semesters of the first year in the graduate program with a grade point average of at least 1.25 may shift to the straight Ph.D. program. The following procedures must be undertaken prior to admission to the straight Ph.D. program:

  1. Obtain a certification of his grade point average and record of his grades for each course he has taken at the 200-level from the Office of the University Registrar. These documents must be attached to his application for a qualifying examination to the straight Ph.D. program.
  2. After securing the foregoing documents, apply for a Qualifying Examination to the straight Ph.D. program to the Dean of the Graduate School upon the recommendation of the advisory committee and the department chair.
  3. Take the Qualifying Examination to the straight Ph.D. program which is also the Written Comprehensive Examination of the M.S. degree in Agricultural Economics before the opening of classes immediately after completion of the 26 units of 200-level graduate courses.

A student who passes the written Qualifying Examination shall be recommended by the department chair to the Dean of the Graduate School who will issue the official letter of admission to the straight Ph.D. program. An applicant who fails to meet the admission requirements retains his status in the master’s program.

Upon admission to the straight Ph.D. program, the student must nominate his advisory committee and thenceforth, shall be subject to all procedures and requirements applicable to the regular Ph.D. program except insofar as the academic requirements are concerned.

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS

The student who qualifies for a straight Ph. D. program shall plan his course work with the duly constituted Advisory Committee for his/her Ph. D. program.

A minimum of 38 units of course work, 2 units of which are for graduate seminar, shall be required. At least 27 units shall be required in the major field and a minimum of 9 units in the cognate field, if only one cognate field is chosen, or 24 units shall be required in the major field and a minimum of 6 units for each of two cognate fields, if this option is selected. Only graduate courses in the 200 level shall be credited except for 6 units of the courses in the 100 level. In addition, a doctoral dissertation equivalent to 12 units is required.

The student must finish all course work within two years (four semesters and two summers). Exceptions shall only be made on the strength of the recommendation of the major adviser to the Graduate Instruction Committee.

Requirements for Both Regular and Straight PhD Programs

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION (WRITTEN AND ORAL)

The comprehensive examination which tests the student in his/her major and cognate fields shall consist of a written examination for each area indicated in his plan of course work and an integrative oral examination after the written examination. The student may apply for a comprehensive examination after completing all the academic course requirements with an average grade of 2.00 or better. The written examination is administered by the Comprehensive Examination Committee from among the members of the Graduate Instruction Committee.

The written examination is administered twice a year by the Comprehensive Examination Committee: the first is one month after the first day of regular registration for Summer; the second is one month after the first day of regular registration for the second semester. Interested students should inform the chairman of the Comprehensive Examination Committee about their intention to take the examination and about their major and cognate fields during the start of registration for Summer and the 2nd semester. Students will be required to fill out a form which indicates the courses they have taken and the name of professors who handled these courses. Application for the comprehensive examination shall be submitted to the Dean of theGraduate School at least one month before the date of the examination.

The comprehensive examination shall test the student in his major and cognate fields. The written examination shall consist of four 3-hour examinations for (a) macroeconomic theory, (b) microeconomic theory, (c) major field, and (d) cognate field. An integrative oral examination is administered by the Advisory Committee and may be taken at any time after passing the written examinations.

A student who fails in his comprehensive examination may apply for re-examination not earlier than one month but not later than one year after the first examination. If the student fails in the re-examination, he/she may apply for a Master of Science degree and fulfill the requirements of such degree.

The chairman of the Advisory Committee shall submit to the Dean a report on the results of the examination one week after the examination.

FINAL EXAMINATION

The comprehensive examination which tests the student in his/her major and cognate fields shall consist of a written examination for each area indicated in his plan of course work and an integrative oral examination after the written examination. The student may apply for a comprehensive examination after completing all the academic course requirements with an average grade of 2.00 or better. The written examination is administered by the Comprehensive Examination Committee from among the members of the Graduate Instruction Committee.

The written examination is administered twice a year by the Comprehensive Examination Committee: the first is one month after the first day of regular registration for Summer; the second is one month after the first day of regular registration for the second semester. Interested students should inform the chairman of the Comprehensive Examination Committee about their intention to take the examination and about their major and cognate fields during the start of registration for Summer and the 2nd semester. Students will be required to fill out a form which indicates the courses they have taken and the name of professors who handled these courses. Application for the comprehensive examination shall be submitted to the Dean of theGraduate School at least one month before the date of the examination.

The comprehensive examination shall test the student in his major and cognate fields. The written examination shall consist of four 3-hour examinations for (a) macroeconomic theory, (b) microeconomic theory, (c) major field, and (d) cognate field. An integrative oral examination is administered by the Advisory Committee and may be taken at any time after passing the written examinations.

A student who fails in his comprehensive examination may apply for re-examination not earlier than one month but not later than one year after the first examination. If the student fails in the re-examination, he/she may apply for a Master of Science degree and fulfill the requirements of such degree.

The chairman of the Advisory Committee shall submit to the Dean a report on the results of the examination one week after the examination.

TIME LIMIT

In addition to the time limit for the completion of course work, not more than five calendar years from the start of graduate work shall be allowed for the fulfillment of all requirements for the straight Ph. D. program.

Guidance/Advisory Committee

All entering students are assigned temporarily to the Department Chair for advising for initial registration purposes only. The students are then referred to the Graduate Instruction Committee during the first semester for selection of the final major professor who becomes the chair of the Guidance/Advisory Committee and thesis adviser. The Guidance/Advisory Committee has at least two other members to represent the student’s major and minor fields. The committee approves the student’s study program and administers the oral comprehensive and final examination.

Areas of Specialization

Areas of specialization: Agricultural Development, Agricultural Marketing, Agricultural Policy, Agricultural Prices, Farm Management, Production Economics, and Resource Economics.

The MS AECO program requires a minimum of 32 units, these are 15 units of major courses, 9 units of minor courses, 2 units of seminar and 6 units of thesis. The major courses are composed of core courses ECON 201, ECON 202, ECON 237 and other major courses to satisfy the minimum number of units.

The PhD AECO program requires a minimum of 38 units, these are 15 units of major courses, 9 units of cognate courses (or 12 units for double cognate), 2 units of seminar and 12 units of dissertation. The major courses are composed of core courses ECON 203, ECON 204, ECON 237 and other major courses to satisfy the minimum number of units.

Other requirements: Graduate students are required to pass a departmental written comprehensive examination given
once in a semester and an oral examination.

Graduate Courses

AECO 210. Advanced Agricultural Production Economics (3). Selected economic theories and their application to problems in agricultural production and their distribution. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

AECO 211. Advanced Farm Management (3). Production problems of small and large farms; farm business analysis; production decision criteria; and labor management. 3 hrs (class). PR. AECO 111 and ECON 102 or COI. (2)

AECO 220. Economics of Agricultural Marketing (3). Economic theory applied to marketing; analysis of marketing functions, cost and prices of agricultural inputs and products; industry structure, marketing policies. 3 hrs (class). PR. AECO 120 or COI. (1)

AECO 222. Agricultural Prices (3). Price determination in product and factor markets; supply and demand; price variation and instability; dynamic analysis; price policy. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 102 or COI. (2)

AECO 230. Advanced Agricultural Finance (3). Conceptual bases of agricultural finance; risks and uncertainties in farm-related financial intermediaries; issues in financing agricultural development. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

AECO 240. Natural Resource Economics (3). Application of economic theory to developmental and intertemporal issues in the optimal management of agricultural land and other resource-evaluation of economic institutions affecting use of such resources. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 101 or COI. (1)

AECO 241. Economic Analysis and Planning of Agricultural Projects (3). Economic analysis of agricultural projects from national and individual viewpoints; identification of projects; preparation and evaluation of project plans. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 101 and ECON 102 or COI. (2)

AECO 248. Economic Analysis and Design of Natural Resource and Environmental Policies (3). Economic principles, methods and tools in the analyses and design of natural resource and environmental policies. 3 hrs (class). PR. AECO 240 or COI. (1,2)

AECO 250. Agriculture and Economic Development (3). Factors that accelerate or inhibit the growth of agriculture; survey of existing growth theories and establishment of their relevance to Philippine experience. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 101 and ECON 102 or COI. (2)

AECO 251. Agricultural Programs for Economic Development (3). Past and present action programs of government agencies and farmer’s organizations; coordination of programs of viable private operating units and public agencies. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 101 and ECON 102 or COI. (1)

AECO 253. Applied Regional Economics (3). Application of economic theories and analytical tools to regional planning, development, and program implementation. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 101 and STAT 1 or COI. (2)

AECO 260. Research in Agricultural Economics (3). Methods and techniques of economic research, emphasis on current agricultural economic problems. 3 hrs (class). PR. ECON 101 and ECON 102 or COI. (1)

AECO 261. Food and Nutrition Economics (3). World food problems and the economic consequences of malnutrition; review of food and nutrition policies and programs. 3 hrs (class). (1)

AECO 290. Special Problems (1-3). May be taken twice provided that total number of units to be credited to the student’s program will not exceed 4 units. PR. COI. (1,2)

AECO 291. Special Topics (1-3). May be taken twice provided that total number of units to be credited to the student’s program will not exceed 4 units. PR. COI. (1,2)

AECO 299. Graduate Seminar in Agricultural Economics (1). May be repeated once for a maximum of 2 units. PR. COI. (1,2)

AECO 300. Master’s Thesis (6). (1,2,S)

AECO 320. Organization and Performance of Agricultural Markets (3). Agricultural markets: structure, conduct and performance; policy and welfare analysis; research and development. 3 hrs (class). PR. AECO 220 and ECON 202 or COI. (2)

AECO 400. Doctoral Dissertation (12). (1,2,S)